Not true. Spores can be at damaging levels even before December right through untill June.
Temporarily maybe but in the right conditions fungal colonies will continue to produce spores, which rapidly lift the counts in paddocks after heavy rains.
Fungal colonies can continue producing spores after frosts when favourable conditions return. Cold conditions can intensify the toxicity of the sporidesmin. If conditions warm up again the risk will still be present.
If spore counts are high in the region, spore counts are very likely to be present on all farms. Even though no clinical cases are seen, there are likely to be subclinical losses.
Ongoing exposure to pasture spore counts as low as 20,000 causes as much damage as short lived spikes.
Not always true. Counts can be just as bad on either.
Yes they do. FE is a liver disease, though they may not exhibit pigmentation and skin peeling.
They must have dead and dying pasture litter to grow on and can grow when air temps are <12°C.
High risk factors are rye grass, cocksfoot, browntop, yorkshire fog pastures, and around urine patches (FE spores love nitrogen!).
This only applies when fungicide is applied at the right time. When the pasture is green and growing and counts are less than <20,000 – check before grazing.
Water intakes and therefore zinc intakes do vary. Serum data has shown that cows may be under-protected with zinc.